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*To be honest = Tell you true something


*Actually, Basecally, Generally...

*I've never though about that befoer, but....

*That's good/ difficult question

*Let me think about that

*To begin with/ Firstly


Could you please tell me what XXX mean?

Could you please tell me the meaning of XXX?


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result, outcome, consequence 均有表示結果的意思,其中result最常使用,outcome通常表示無法預知的結果,例如醫療檢查的結果等等,這時也可用result,最後consequence表後果,用在負面結果的時候居多。

something that happens or exists because of something else
=> 因為如何,導致的結果
She died as a result of her injuries.
The road has been widened, but the result is just more traffic.
His broken leg is the direct result of his own carelessness.
election/ sports competition/ exam/ scientific experiment/ medical test
=> 選舉/運動比賽/考試/科學實驗/醫療檢察,最終的結果

They will announce the result of the vote tonight.
the election results/ the results of the local elections

the football results

I finished my exams yesterday, but I won't know/get the results until August.
the result of an experiment
=> 表示成功的結果

The team needs a result to go through to the semi-finals.
The project is beginning to show results.

a result or effect of an action, situation or event
=> 事情演變的結果,強調不可預知的,待見分曉的結果(也可用result)
It's too early to predict the outcome of the meeting.
We are waiting to hear the final outcome of the negotiations.

consequence (n.)
a result of a particular action or situation, often one which is bad or not convenient
=> 後果,種什麼因得什麼果,強調必然的邏輯關聯 (語用常為負面、不好的惡果)
If you insist on eating so much, you'll have to take/suffer/face the consequences.
Two hundred people lost their jobs as a direct consequence of the merger.
(n.) importance or relevance.
=> 重要性
The money was of no consequence to Tony.



Difference between “result”, “consequence”, “outcome”

Consequence almost always carries a suggestion of something potentially or actually negative. One would not expect some one to say, "as a consequence of your work ethic over the past month, you are getting a promotion!" One does not generally want to "face the consequences" as it's not likely to be a good thing.

Result and outcome are more alike, in that there is no implied negativity.

Result is more commonly used in regular conversation, and is most appropriate in referring to what are the effects of some actions. So "the result of your diligent study was a good grade on the test."

Outcome is most commonly used in technical settings, and has a more specific meaning relating to the final observed results in a study or at the end of an observational period. For instance: "placing an IV immediately upon admittance to the ER often results in shorter ER stays, but is not necessarily correlated with positive patient outcomes based upon primary provider follow-up and patient surveys."

As another example, the result of raising prices might be higher profit margins, but the outcome of a pricing strategy may be less profit from a reduced number of sales.


When in doubt, use result because it implies the least. When you want to imply something negative, or potentially negative, use consequence. Reserve outcome for formal, technical discussions.

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1.打通耳朵 完全聽清

2.聽寫並重 熟練發音

3.擅用辭典 大聲朗讀

4.聲相結合 活化英語

5.文化融通 全盤掌握


* 作者:鄭贊容 * 譯者:李貞嬌

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Dear Sir/Madam,

I am interested in applying for the managing consultant position you have posted on your Web site. I believe that my background and experience make me an attractive candidate for your consideration.

After graduating from State University, I founded a small computer graphic-design company, Online Style. This company became increasingly successful over the years. I hold 65 percent of the shares and continue on its board of directors as chairperson, although I have relinquished my position as general manager and stepped down as CEO.

The agency I now direct, Business First, Provides consulting services for companies interested in improving the effectiveness of their advertising. Despite the success of this new business venture, I am seeking at this time to relocate to Venice for personal reasons.

As you can see from the enclosed resume, I have a board background in business development and marketing as well as advertising. Because of my diverse experience, I have developed strong skills in financial consulting. I have also acquired expertise in designing presentations for large audiences and planning successful business meetings.

I believe my skills and abilities fit the description of the person you are seeking. While I am knowledgeable about general business issues in both the domestic and international arenas, I will want to thoroughly understand those that are unique to your business, and I am confident that I can do so rapidly. One of your requirements, maintaining good community relations, happens to be one of my greatest strengths. I would be happy to provide you with names of people who can personally testify to this.

I would welcome the opportunity to discuss how my skills could benefit your organization. Please find my telephone number and e-mail address in my resume. I look forward to hearing from you.


Estelle Juti

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Take the rough with the smooth.
We should accept that life has its rough times and its good times.

It's sad to grow old, but nice to ripen.

We only live once— but if we work it right, once is enough.

The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.

Advice when most needed is least heeded.

The man who makes mistakes does not usually make anything.

Birds of a feather flock together.

Idleness is the rust of the mind.

It is more blessed to give than to receive.

Love blinds all men alike, both the reasonable and foolish.

Love does not consist in gazing at each other but in looking together in the same direction.

Men always want to be a woman's first love; women like to be a man's last romance.

Out of sight, out of mind.


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作者簡介:現任政治大學英文系兼任副教授,教授新聞英語──聽力及客家文化概論。曾任政大公企中心語言組主任,政大英文系主任。專長科目:新聞語──聽力,商用英文,客家文化。致力客家運動十餘年,著有《心懷客家》雜文集(www3.nccu.edu.tw/~pcc/)。 現為公視客家諮詢委員,客家雜誌編輯委員。


ICRT是為在台的外僑--尤其是美籍人士--而設。全天廿四小時分FM和AM以英語播音 ,每小時有整點新聞,每半小時有新聞提要,其中整點新聞又以早上七點到八點最詳盡,中午十二點到十二點半,下午六點到八點半的新聞也相當豐富,重要的新聞會一再重播。只要買台收音機,在家裡,路上,車上隨時隨地都可以收聽,可謂方便至極。另外,播出的新聞都是國內外大事,聽起來較錄音帶教材或廣播教教學教材要來得有真實感,學得的單字也較實用,不容易忘記。


問題是,許多人初聽 ICRT 新聞,就被播報員的播報速度給嚇壞了,認為要聽懂它簡直是不可能的事,於是聽了幾次後便放棄了。也有人認為只要每天把收音機固定在 ICRT 頻道上.整天"浸泡"在 ICRT 節目中,經過潛移默化,不知不覺就會聽懂。許多人聽了多年,音樂聽了不少,但對播報的新聞內容仍然是「有聽沒有懂」。原因到底何在?一言以蔽之 ,「不用心」而已。


(一)重實輕虛:英語是節奏性很高的語言,據學者統計,口說英語中,約每0.6秒出現一強音。一般說來 ,英語的實字(content words)要唸強,實字包括名詞,動詞,形容詞,副詞;虛字(function words)唸弱,虛字包括冠詞,介詞,助動詞,連接詞,代名詞。所以下列兩個句子,儘管字數相差將近一倍,但是唸起來花的時間卻一樣多。


The cat is interested in protecting its kittens.

Large cars waste gas.

第一句的強音落在 cat, interested中的in, protecting中的pro及kitten中的kit上;第二句則全部強音。


San Mao won great fame through her essays and novels on love and her travel experiences through the world. 劃底線部分均屬虛字,都被極快速度模糊帶過,如her的[h]和and的[d]音幾乎都不發出。

(二)一口氣一意群:意群(thought group)又叫做詞塊(chunk)是 “basic unit of understanding”。通常一個句子由若干意群組成,每個意群自成一個單元。英美人士會一口氣唸完,而非逐字唸出,以上面這個句子為例,播音員會很自然的分成三大意群:

San Mao won great fame/through her essays and novels on love/and her travel experiences through the world./ 國人學英語習慣逐字聽,因此遇到一口氣吐出成推的字便無法適應。


When the President was asked / that Hau’s lack of financial and economic background will be a problem for the new premier. / Lee responded by saying / the general is much more intelligent /than everyone thinks./

(三)語調頓挫藏玄機:書寫的英文,讀者可藉標點符號清楚瞭解訊息的意思。口語英語只能靠說話者的語調(intonation)及頓挫(juncture)來替代標點符號。因此聽者必須知道敘述句,問句和驚嘆句的語調,也要知道多長的頓挫代表無標點,逗點,或句點。國人對231↓及231↑兩種語調很熟悉,但對22→non-final 的語調較生疏,而non-final在口語英語中用的機會很多,宜多利用機會訓練。請看下列句子:

Other than the romance novelist Tsung Yao, San Mao is probably the only writer that has successfully penetrated the hearts of youngsters in mainland China. 說者在Tsung Yao後一定會稍停頓並以22→ non-final的語調說出,而that子句在本句子係限制子句,所以在writer與that之間也是non-final的語調,且中間頓挫是極短促的。


Taro Ishibahi, who is the director of loan aid at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said in an interview that Pakistan could default on its debt because of the impact of the Gulf crisis.

Who 子句是非限制子句,因此在Who與其先行詞之間的頓挫就要比上句中的writer與that 之間的頓挫稍長,雖然仍然用non-final語調。

The man was told he would have to take his daughter away. He complained. However, the KTVs have become venues for family amusement in Taipei. 三個簡單的句子,聽起來不會太難,但是,第二句的however不注意的話,很容易聽成引起第三句的連接副詞,意思就不同了。

(四)連音:連音在口語英語中是極普遍現象。如tons of, make an announcement tell (h)im, for (h)er等。
通常在一個意群中子音與母音很自然的便連了起來,如前面舉的一則有關日本外務省官員的例子said in an interview幾個字串連在一起,對聽者來說是極大考驗。

When the scaffolding began to shake, he unfastened his safety belt to try to escape.


(五)拍打音現象(The Flap):口說英語中還有拍打音的現象,就是 [t]、[d]前後都是母音時,[t] [d] 便成拍打音,幾乎發[l]音,如little, important, mountain, couldn’t, didn’t, medal, middle, battle, forget it, not at all等的[t]、[d]音幾乎變成[l] 音,這類字出現在新聞報導的頻率相當高,也是需要多加練習。


(六)字尾「有發無聲」的子音(Non-released final consonants):英語的子音,如[b ][p] [d][t][g][k][f][v][m][n][ng]常出現在單字的字尾,英美人士念這些子音時通常都是「有發無聲」,即發音動作有做,但聲音不釋放出來,像mob, mop, lid, lit, bag, bark, life, live, Tim, tin, sin, sing等。國語字沒有以[d] [g] [m] 結尾的現象,但閩南話及客家話仍然保有漢語中古音促音現象,如客語「法律學」的發音為fab lid hog,閩南話「學習律」的發音為hag xib lud 皆是。另外, 客語與閩南語的「心」皆念xim。英語「有發無聲」的子音非常多,國人學英語重每字都要發得字正腔圓,但英美人士對字尾的子音用「有發無聲」方式處理,如 mop mob;sat sad; see   seat   seed     today to date; weigh weight;armed robbery; debt dodger;     make a comeback; as planned;as scheduled; port pork等都會造成聽力的問題。


(七)省略音(Ellipsis):口說英語中另外一個現象是:兩個音節的字,重音節前的母音常常會省略。如 b(e)cause   p(o)lite   (a)bout p (o)lice    b(e)lieve    m(i)stake    r(e)ceive   d (e)mand 。三音節以上的字則以重音節前後的母音省略。如 d (e)licious   b(a)nana chem(i)cal pract(i)cal   terr(i)ble   choc(o)late   bus(i)ness     prob(a)bly     int(e)resting   fam(i)ly     fact(o)ry     ord(i)nary     s(u)ppose     gas(o)line     fav(o)rite    cam(e)ra  


(一)結構固定:平面媒體英文的第一段稱為導言(lead),回答who、 when、 where、 why 、what、 how 等問題。廣播新聞英語第一句通常是主旨句,而後以回答前述的六個W方式發展。如 The Ilan City Government’s said enough is enough in its 13-day garbage war with the Ilan County Government. Overflowing with trash and fed up with the county’s foot-dragging on finding a site for a new garbage dump, city garbage men have dumped 11 big trucks packed with wet stinking refuse on the plaza in front of the county office building. City officials say the problem is not theirs any more. It’s up to the county to take out the trash.在第一句主題句出現後,藉著回答六個W的方式,將細節交代清楚。


(二)口語化:現代報紙雜誌英文的文章都盡量淺顯,廣播新聞英語更是如此,以上則報導為例,三言兩語把宜蘭市政府和縣政府垃圾之爭交代得很清楚又傳神,enough is enough, overflowing with, fed up with, foot-dragging, packed with, up to等都是非常口語化的字詞。


Shevardnadze’s warning the dictatorship is coming to the Soviet Union and that if it comes no one can say who would become the dictator.


Shevardnadze’s及Shevardnadze is的省略,warning後有兩個that子句當受詞,第一個that省掉了。聽者常把省略字誤聽為所有格,或常因省略某些字無法充分掌握句子,也是聽力困擾的原因之一。

(三)無填補詞:一般日常對話,說話者用在支吾的時間可能高達30%到50%,如uh, oh, hum, ah, well, say等,甚至默而不語。因此聽者以比較多時間去慢慢了解聽到的訊息。可是播報員播報新聞時亦須在有限時間內播出大量消息,所以頓挫盡量短,無支吾詞,聽者必須即聽即懂才能跟上播報員的速度,對初學者來說,這是難如登天的事,甚至不少英文稍有根基的人也視聽ICRT新聞為畏途。

(四)簡短:理論上說,新聞英語的用字和句子應力求簡短(Keep it short and simple.) 尤其是單字,不宜用艱澀的字,應該用大眾皆易懂的語言。如用bid 取代 attempt:Taiwans WHO entry bid. 用 juice,不用electricity:According to Taipower, the juice will be back in 3 hours. 用 woe 取代trouble:economic woes, water woes. Interpellation 可以用question and answer period,甚至 q and a 來取代:During the q and a, the Premier promised to crack down on corruption.


1.由簡入繁:ICRT新聞大致可分國際新聞、國內新聞、經濟新聞、體育新聞,及氣象。對初學者來說,我建議從國內新聞聽起,因為一般說來,聽者對國內新聞的背景比較瞭解,聽起來比較 “順”,同時學到的單字也比較實用,可用在日常生活當中。


A Taichung police officer has been killed in a shootout during an attempt to make an arrest. After receiving a tip on the whereabouts of a known gunman Cheng Chi-ping, the seven-man Taichung Youth Corps Police closed in. After surrounding Cheng’s hideout, police identified themselves. Cheng then opened fire. In the shootout that followed, one officer, Chan Chi-sen, was killed and another, Tseng Chiang-ien, was wounded. Gunman Cheng Chi-ping was found dead on the scene by the police.


2.顧後不瞻前:許多人聽外語常犯的錯誤是只顧揣摩剛剛聽到的是什麼,而忽略了去揣摩說話者將會說什麼。這種現象在一般日常生活的對話中,由於頓挫支吾佔了許多時間,不會產生太大困擾。可是在新聞廣播中,播音員一開口便成串的字流瀉而出,聽者如果還是忙著揣摩所聽到的訊息,不去預測未來的訊息,那只有永遠辛苦的跟著播報員後頭追得非常辛苦,甚至為了顧前而丟了後,結果前後都沒有聽懂。為了避免這種窘像,便要學會如何猜測說話者將要說什麼。新聞體的文章都與何人、何時、何事、何地、為何、如何有關,而前第一句的導言會把重要的訊息傳達出來,之後的報導,朝”六何”的方向猜大致不差。以上面這則新聞為例,聽了第一句 A Taichung police officer has been killed in a shootout during an attempt to make an arrest之後,聽者對整則新聞已有大略的印象,後邊的報導只是比較詳盡的敘述,回答何人、何時、何事、何地、為何、如何等問題。這類新聞聽起來輕鬆許多,這也是聽國內新聞比較容易的原因之一。

3.單字的克服:看英文報紙及聽英語廣播一向被認為是提昇英文能力的好方法,可是許多人發現攤開報紙,打開收音機,腦子卻有”寸步難行”的感覺,因為處處是看不懂、聽不懂的字。事實上,不管是聽、說、讀、寫都要有足夠的單字才能勝任。雖然廣播新聞英語用字淺顯,可是新聞涵蓋面廣,有政治的、經濟的、環保的、災難的、人情味的,不一而足,聽者所需要的單字要很多。報紙英文看不懂,可以一看再看,慢慢查字典,可是廣播新聞英語稍縱即逝,必須要即聽即懂,所以單字對聽者來說尤具重要性。初學者不妨先把英文報紙相關報導剪下,仔細閱讀後在聽寫錄下的新聞,或先聽寫錄下的新聞再參考報紙的報導,許多聽不出來的字,可在報紙報導中找出。此外,為了不使報導顯得單調,播音員會在同一則新聞中用不同的字指涉相同的事,前面所舉宜蘭市政府和和縣政府垃圾大戰的新聞,就用了trash, garbage, refuse等字指垃圾。在一則有關地震報導中,除了用earthquake外,還用了quake及temblor。碰到這種情況,最好的方法是查有同義字,反義字的英英字典。

In an article entitled “On Local Petrochemical Firms’ Leaving Roots in Taiwan,” Wang said the best bet for Taiwan’s up-and-down-stream petrochemical plants is to facilitate closer cooperation and an exclusive zone in Mainland China.


Adding to the blanket of smog smoldering the capital, the startup of the Christmas holidays has caused traffic jams and brought greater volumes of toxic emissions.

第一句entitled前省略了which was; Wang said後省去了引起受詞子句的連接詞that。
第二句Adding to …the capital是現在分詞片語修飾主詞the startup,而smoldering 也是現在分詞,是which is smoldering 的省略。
隨著科技的進步,傳播事業的發展一日千里,世界任何角落發生的重大新聞,幾乎可以從媒體中馬上知曉。其中又以廣播最迅速、方便。古人說:『秀才不出門,能知天下事。』真是一點不假。ICRT的新聞雖然品質上仍有瑕疵 (如國內新聞常會將官員的頭銜張冠李戴,也有播音員播報起來有氣無力),不過,一般說來,仍然能掌握迅速、正確的原則」,給忙碌的現代人提供吸收世界現況資訊及練習英文的極佳機會。有天如果 ICRT 的新聞無法滿足你知的慾望,可利用短波收音機收聽 BBC (英國廣播電台) VOA(美國之音)及世界上其他各國的英語節目,拓寬自己的視野。聽熟 ICRT 新聞,對口語英語特性也必能正確的掌握,聽其他類的英文,如托福聽力試題等,也應該不成問題。因此,花苦心好好練習聽 ICRT 新聞絕對是值得的。所謂Practice makes perfect,不管你知道多少如何訓練提升聽力的方法,不去付諸行動,再好的方法也沒用。就像學游泳,聽人家說怎麼悶氣,如何划水、攤腿一千遍,不如自己下水去試幾遍,只有在自己鼻子嗆了水,吃過幾次水後,懂得其中艱苦和如何避免知道後,才能練好泳技。
本文的目的,只在提供個人的經驗供大家參考(用文字敘述來談如何訓練聽 ICRT 新聞,實在不是好方法),其中有許多艱辛必須自己經驗過才能體會,知道克服之道,才能享受到興趣。看完本文,如果你有興趣認真的試聽 ICRT 新聞,請不要猶豫,找幾個同好,買一本好的英語字典,一台收錄收音機,訂份英文報,每天花個把鐘頭,半年下來你會發現,聽 ICRT 新聞實在不難。

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Preserve 的意思較為狹窄,指的是「保持事物現狀,不使衰敗」,使東西完好無損保留下來收藏。




The ship is equipped with special refrigerating devices to preserve food for the whole voyage.
It was proposed that the house be preserved as it had been when Lu Xun lived in it.
It's amazing that the church is still well preserved.
Before the invention of the refrigerator, salt was widely used to preserve food.




He is conserving his energy for the last twenty-meter dash.
We must conserve our forests if we are to make sure of a future supply of wood.
New laws have been made to conserve woodlands and wildlife in this area.
They are drawing up a plan to conserve the country's natural resources (他們正擬定計劃,保護國家的天然資源。)
What is the government doing for the conservation of wildlife?

ps.「環境保護」譯做 environmental conservation 和 environmental preservation 都可以。不過,兩字含義有點不同。有時你會看到 conservation of art works / ancient buildings / historic sites (保護藝術品/古老建築/古蹟)等說法,那 conservation 文法上可改為 preservation ,但 preservation 只是指保存的工作,沒有 conservation 「為後代保存」的意思。


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